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How to Monitor a User’s Last Logon with PowerShell

In modern IT management, one of the critical tasks involves monitoring user accounts, particularly identifying dormant ones. This endeavor is more than just about housekeeping. It directly ties into security, compliance, and efficient resource management. Today, we delve into a PowerShell script that allows for monitoring a user’s last logon

Background

The script provided is designed to identify and report on user accounts based on their last logon time, particularly those that haven’t been used for a specified duration. Ensuring that unused accounts are identified and managed is crucial for IT professionals and Managed Service Providers (MSPs). Dormant accounts pose security risks, often becoming easy targets for cybercriminals. Also, for organizations subject to compliance regulations, tracking user activity, and disabling unused accounts can be a requirement.

The Script

#Requires -Version 5.1

<#
.SYNOPSIS
    Returns exit code of 1 if any Enabled accounts that haven't been logged in over 90 days or a custom amount of days.
.DESCRIPTION
    Returns exit code of 1 if any Enabled accounts that haven't been logged in over 90 days or a custom amount of days.
.EXAMPLE
    No parameters needed.
    Returns exit code of 1 if any Enabled accounts that haven't been logged in over 90 days.
.EXAMPLE
    -IncludeDisabled
    Returns exit code of 1 if any Enabled or Disabled accounts that haven't been logged in over 90 days.
.EXAMPLE
    -Days 60
    Returns exit code of 1 if any Enabled accounts that haven't been logged in over 60 days.
.EXAMPLE
    -Days 60 -IncludeDisabled
    Returns exit code of 1 if any Enabled or Disabled accounts that haven't been logged in over 60 days.
.OUTPUTS
    None
.NOTES
    Minimum OS Architecture Supported: Windows 7, Windows Server 2012
    Exit code 1: Found users that haven't logged in over X days and are enabled.
    Exit code 2: Calling "net.exe user" or "Get-LocalUser" failed.
    Release Notes:
    Initial Release
By using this script, you indicate your acceptance of the following legal terms as well as our Terms of Use at https://www.ninjaone.com/terms-of-use.
    Ownership Rights: NinjaOne owns and will continue to own all right, title, and interest in and to the script (including the copyright). NinjaOne is giving you a limited license to use the script in accordance with these legal terms. 
    Use Limitation: You may only use the script for your legitimate personal or internal business purposes, and you may not share the script with another party. 
    Republication Prohibition: Under no circumstances are you permitted to re-publish the script in any script library or website belonging to or under the control of any other software provider. 
    Warranty Disclaimer: The script is provided “as is” and “as available”, without warranty of any kind. NinjaOne makes no promise or guarantee that the script will be free from defects or that it will meet your specific needs or expectations. 
    Assumption of Risk: Your use of the script is at your own risk. You acknowledge that there are certain inherent risks in using the script, and you understand and assume each of those risks. 
    Waiver and Release: You will not hold NinjaOne responsible for any adverse or unintended consequences resulting from your use of the script, and you waive any legal or equitable rights or remedies you may have against NinjaOne relating to your use of the script. 
    EULA: If you are a NinjaOne customer, your use of the script is subject to the End User License Agreement applicable to you (EULA).
.COMPONENT
    ManageUsers
#>

[CmdletBinding()]
param (
    [Parameter()]
    [int]
    $Days = 90,
    [Parameter()]
    [switch]
    $IncludeDisabled
)

begin {}
process {
    if ($Days -lt 0) {
        # Change negative days to the expected positive days
        $Days = 0 - $Days
    }
    $Accounts = if ($(Get-Command "Get-LocalUser").Name -like "Get-LocalUser") {
        try {
            Get-LocalUser | Select-Object Name, Enabled, SID, LastLogon
        }
        catch {
            exit 2
        }
    }
    else {
        # Get users from net.exe user
        $Data = $(net.exe user) | Select-Object -Skip 4
        # Check if the command ran the way we wanted and the exit code is 0
        if ($($Data | Select-Object -Last 2 | Select-Object -First 1) -like "*The command completed successfully.*" -and $LASTEXITCODE -eq 0) {
            # Process the output and get only the users
            $Users = $Data[0..($Data.Count - 3)] -split 's+' | Where-Object { -not $([String]::IsNullOrEmpty($_)) }
            # Loop through each user
            $Users | ForEach-Object {
                # Get the Account active property look for a Yes
                $Enabled = $(net.exe user $_) | Where-Object {
                    $_ -like "Account active*" -and
                    $($_ -split 's+' | Select-Object -Last 1) -like "Yes"
                }
                # Get the Last logon property
                $LastLogon = $(
                    $(
                        $(net.exe user $_) | Where-Object {
                            $_ -like "Last logon*"
                        }
                    ) -split 's+' | Select-Object -Skip 2
                ) -join ' '
                # Get the Password last set property
                $PasswordLastSet = $(
                    $(
                        $(net.exe user $_) | Where-Object {
                            $_ -like "Password last set*"
                        }
                    ) -split 's+' | Select-Object -Skip 3
                ) -join ' '
                # Output Name and Enabled almost like how Get-LocalUser displays it's data
                [PSCustomObject]@{
                    Name      = $_
                    Enabled   = if ($Enabled -like "*Yes*") { $true }else { $false }
                    LastLogon = if ($LastLogon -like "*Never*") { [DateTime]::Parse($PasswordLastSet) } else { [DateTime]::Parse($LastLogon) }
                }
            }
        }
        else {
            exit 2
        }
    }
    $Output = $Accounts | Where-Object {
        if ($IncludeDisabled) {
            $_.LastLogon -lt $(Get-Date).AddDays(0 - $Days)
        }
        else {
            $_.Enabled -and $_.LastLogon -lt $(Get-Date).AddDays(0 - $Days)
        }
    }
    $Output | Out-String | Write-Host
    if ($null -ne $Output) {
        exit 1
    }
}
end {}

 

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Detailed Breakdown

The script begins by setting a default duration of 90 days to check for inactivity. It then uses either the “Get-LocalUser” cmdlet or “net.exe user” command, depending on what’s available.

  • If “Get-LocalUser” cmdlet is present, it fetches the details directly.
  • If not, it resorts to the “net.exe user” command. This command retrieves the data and then processes the output to filter out the required details.

The primary logic is to check if the last logon date of each user is older than the defined threshold. If a match is found, it’s displayed, and the script exits with a code of 1. An exit code of 2 is used for exceptions when fetching user data.

Potential Use Cases

Imagine Jane, an IT professional in a mid-sized company. Recently, the company faced a minor security breach. Post the incident, Jane was tasked with beefing up security. One of the suggestions was to regularly check for accounts that have been inactive and disable them. Using this script, she can set up a monthly routine to fetch a list of such accounts, ensuring the company’s user directory remains active and secure.

Comparisons

While the script leverages PowerShell, another approach could involve querying the Active Directory (if available) directly for user account details. Tools like ADManager Plus or even built-in Active Directory Users and Computers (ADUC) can be used. However, our script offers a lightweight, customizable, and free alternative.

FAQs

  • What if I want to check for a different duration of inactivity?
    You can customize the $Days parameter.
  • Can the script identify both enabled and disabled accounts?
    Yes, using the -IncludeDisabled switch, the script can fetch both enabled and disabled accounts.

Implications

Beyond identifying dormant accounts, the broader implication of this script relates to IT security. Inactive accounts can be easily compromised, providing unauthorized access. Periodic checks for user inactivity, and appropriate action, can prevent potential breaches.

Recommendations

  • Always test the script in a sandbox environment before deploying in a live setup.
  • Schedule this script to run periodically to ensure continuous monitoring.
  • Upon identifying dormant accounts, take appropriate actions like disabling the account or notifying the user or their manager.

Final Thoughts

While the script provides an efficient solution, integrating tools like NinjaOne can further enhance capabilities, making tasks more automated and providing a centralized dashboard for management. Tools like NinjaOne are designed to handle such tasks efficiently, ensuring that IT professionals like Jane can focus on more strategic tasks, leveraging scripts like the one above as part of a broader toolkit.

Next Steps

Building an efficient and effective IT team requires a centralized solution that acts as your core service deliver tool. NinjaOne enables IT teams to monitor, manage, secure, and support all their devices, wherever they are, without the need for complex on-premises infrastructure.

Learn more about NinjaOne Remote Script Deployment, check out a live tour, or start your free trial of the NinjaOne platform.

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NinjaOne Terms & Conditions

By clicking the “I Accept” button below, you indicate your acceptance of the following legal terms as well as our Terms of Use:

  • Ownership Rights: NinjaOne owns and will continue to own all right, title, and interest in and to the script (including the copyright). NinjaOne is giving you a limited license to use the script in accordance with these legal terms.
  • Use Limitation: You may only use the script for your legitimate personal or internal business purposes, and you may not share the script with another party.
  • Republication Prohibition: Under no circumstances are you permitted to re-publish the script in any script library belonging to or under the control of any other software provider.
  • Warranty Disclaimer: The script is provided “as is” and “as available”, without warranty of any kind. NinjaOne makes no promise or guarantee that the script will be free from defects or that it will meet your specific needs or expectations.
  • Assumption of Risk: Your use of the script is at your own risk. You acknowledge that there are certain inherent risks in using the script, and you understand and assume each of those risks.
  • Waiver and Release: You will not hold NinjaOne responsible for any adverse or unintended consequences resulting from your use of the script, and you waive any legal or equitable rights or remedies you may have against NinjaOne relating to your use of the script.
  • EULA: If you are a NinjaOne customer, your use of the script is subject to the End User License Agreement applicable to you (EULA).