What Is Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)?

Multiprotocol Label Switching, commonly known as MPLS, is a networking technology that has been in use for over two decades. It is a switching mechanism used primarily in wide-area networks (WANs). MPLS has been the backbone of many enterprise networks, powering them with its unique and efficient routing technique.

What is MPLS?

The essence of MPLS lies in its ability to route traffic using labels rather than network addresses. These labels are used to direct data from one node to the next, making MPLS a vital component in modern networking. This mechanism is often referred to as ‘MPLS Routing’.

An MPLS network is set up with dedicated paths across the network. These paths are created using MPLS labels, enabling fast and efficient data forwarding. This method of data forwarding contributes to increased speed and controlled flow of network traffic.

How does MPLS work?

The operational process of MPLS is relatively straightforward and can be broken down into a few steps.

  1. First, each packet of data that enters the MPLS network is assigned a specific label. This process is referred to as ‘packet labelling’.
  2. Next, the MPLS router, also known as the Label Edge Router (LER), examines the label attached to each data packet and decides where to send it based on the label’s information. It does not inspect the packet’s content or its network address which is typical in conventional IP routing.
  3. Once the MPLS router has determined the path, it forwards the data packet to the next router along this path. Each subsequent router repeats this process, examining the label and forwarding the packet along to the next router in the path. This process continues until the data packet reaches its destination.
  4. When the data packet arrives at the final router in the path, the Label Edge Router at the receiving end, the original MPLS label is removed, and the packet is delivered to its final destination.

This entire process is often termed ‘label switching’. It is important to highlight that MPLS infrastructure can support multiple paths for traffic, allowing for redundancy and improved network reliability.

Pros and cons of MPLS

MPLS has several advantages. Firstly, it provides a reliable, high-performance network connection. It also enhances network monitoring and management by offering efficient routing, which reduces latency and increases speed. MPLS networks can also provide a private virtual network, enhancing security.

Nonetheless, MPLS is not without its drawbacks. It is often more expensive than alternative technologies like broadband or SD-WAN. Furthermore, it lacks the flexibility and scalability that SD-WAN offers, making it less suitable for businesses with rapidly changing needs.


Software-Defined Wide Area Network (SD-WAN) is a newer technology that provides similar benefits to MPLS but with additional features. While MPLS focuses on efficiency and performance, SD-WAN adds flexibility and scalability, which are essential in today’s cloud-centric world.

However, MPLS still holds its ground when it comes to delivering high-quality and reliable connections, especially for real-time applications. It is worth noting that both technologies can coexist, offering the best of both worlds.

MPLS and the future of Networking

MPLS has been a cornerstone of networking for many years, with its unique approach to data routing. While newer technologies like SD-WAN offer exciting possibilities, MPLS continues to play a vital role in many enterprise networks.

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