What Is Routing?

A journey into the heart of the digital realm awaits. The focus? A central concept known as ‘routing.’ Often encountered by IT professionals on a daily basis, routing proves fundamental to the functionality of the internet. In this blog post, we will explore what routing is, how it works, its protocols, and how it impacts the digital world.

What is routing?

Routing is the process by which data packets move from one network to another to reach their final destination. It is akin to a postal worker sorting mail into different piles based on the delivery address – the only difference being that in this case, the ‘mail’ is digital data and the ‘address’ is an IP address.

How does routing work?

When a data packet needs to be sent from one network to another, it does not simply move straight from the source to the destination. Instead, it travels through a series of networks, each one bringing it a step closer to its final destination. The path that the data packet takes is determined by routers, which use routing tables to decide the most efficient route for each packet.

Why is routing important?

Without routing, there would be no internet as we know it. It is the mechanism that allows data to move across networks, enabling us to send emails, browse websites, and stream videos. Moreover, efficient routing ensures that data moves quickly and effectively, minimizing delays and maximizing the performance of our online activities.

What are the different types of routing?

There are primarily two types of routing: dynamic and static. 

Dynamic routing

In dynamic routing, routes are learned automatically through protocols, and changes in network topology are adapted quickly. It is more flexible and less labor-intensive than static routing.

Static routing

On the other hand, static routing involves manually entering routes into the routing table. Although it requires more work, it provides a greater level of control and is ideal for smaller or segmented networks where traffic is predictable.

Main routing protocols

  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

OSPF is a dynamic routing protocol that uses a link-state database to construct a complete picture of the network and determine the shortest path for data packets.

  • Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

BGP is the protocol that makes the internet work. It handles routing between autonomous systems (networks) and is responsible for making sure your data gets where it needs to go on the vast global network.

  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

RIP is one of the oldest routing protocols, and it works by sending out regular updates of its routing table to neighboring routers.

  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

EIGRP is a Cisco proprietary protocol. It uses an algorithm to determine the best path for data and can adapt quickly to changes in network conditions.


Routing is a fundamental process in the world of networking. Its importance cannot be overstated, as it enables data to move efficiently across networks, facilitating the seamless functioning of the internet. By understanding the different types of routing and the main routing protocols, we can appreciate the complex mechanisms that keep our digital world connected.

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