What Is Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)?

Various methodologies and architectures have been developed in the fast-paced computing world to boost processing power and efficiency. One such approach that has gained substantial traction is Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP). This article will provide an overview of this topic, exploring its function, significance, and advantages and disadvantages.

What is symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)?

Symmetric multiprocessing refers to a type of processing in which two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. Most common multiprocessor systems today use an SMP architecture. In the case of multi-core processors, the SMP architecture applies to the cores, treating them as separate processors. 

How is symmetric multiprocessing used?

Symmetric multiprocessing finds extensive usage in various computing environments that demand high-performance computing. It is commonly employed in servers, where multiple tasks must be executed simultaneously. By distributing tasks across multiple processors, symmetric multiprocessing enables efficient multitasking and enhances the system’s overall performance. While SMP can be cost-effective, Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) would be more effective for organizations that need large volumes of data processed quickly.

Key characteristics of symmetric multiprocessing

Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) exhibits several unique characteristics that differentiate it from other processing architectures. Here are some key attributes:

  • Uniform Memory Access: In SMP, every processor can access any memory location directly. This enables equal opportunity for all processors to fetch and store data.
  • Processor Equality: All processors in an SMP system are peers. No processor has a superior role; all share equal responsibility in executing tasks.
  • Dynamic Load Balancing: The operating system can allocate work dynamically across all processors, achieving optimal task distribution and resource utilization.
  • Single Operating System: SMP systems typically run a single copy of the operating system. This allows for efficient task management and resource allocation.
  • Concurrency Control: SMP systems must manage simultaneous access to shared resources, requiring robust concurrency control mechanisms to prevent access conflicts and ensure data integrity.

Advantages and disadvantages of SMP

Like any other technology, symmetric multiprocessing comes with its unique set of advantages and disadvantages:


  1. Enhanced performance: With multiple processors working simultaneously, system performance is significantly improved.
  2. Efficient resource sharing: All processors share the same memory and I/O devices, leading to efficient resource utilization.
  3. Better reliability: If one processor fails, the system can continue functioning with the remaining processors.


  1. Complexity: The architecture of SMP systems can be quite complex, making them difficult to design and manage.
  2. Limit on processor count: There’s a limit to the number of processors that can be added due to the shared memory architecture.
  3. Risk of bottlenecks: If not managed properly, there can be potential bottlenecks in memory access, leading to performance issues.

The Impact of SMP on Modern Computing

Symmetric multiprocessing enhances system performance by allowing multiple processors to work simultaneously. While it has its challenges, its benefits make it a popular choice in high-performance computing environments. Understanding the concept of symmetric multiprocessing and how it works can provide valuable insights into computer architecture.

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