Cómo comprobar y monitorizar de forma remota el espacio en disco con un script PowerShell

La monitorización del espacio en disco es un componente básico, pero al mismo tiempo fundamental, de todo soporte de TI proactivo, esencial para reducir el volumen de tickets y mantener la integridad y la estabilidad del sistema. La falta o el agotamiento del espacio en disco puede causar, obviamente, toda una serie de problemas y quejas por parte de los usuarios, desde fallos en las aplicaciones hasta bloqueos del sistema completo, por lo que crear alertas cuando las unidades caigan por debajo de cierto umbral es una forma excelente de evitarlos.

Este post te enseñará a comprobar la capacidad del disco y a notificar en caso de poco espacio, de forma remota, en toda tu base de usuarios.

¿Cómo puedes comprobar el espacio del disco duro de forma remota y enviar una alerta cuando quede poco espacio?

  1. Identifica qué unidades quieres supervisar y cuáles deseas excluir (si es el caso).
  2. Determina los umbrales de espacio en disco que deseas establecer para cada tipo de unidad.
  3. Personaliza en consonancia el script que encontrarás a continuación.

Este script PowerShell ha sido diseñado para alertar sobre las unidades que están por debajo de cierto porcentaje o tamaño especificado y hace una distinción entre unidades de sistema (las que se utilizan para arrancar el sistema operativo) y unidades de datos, proporcionando una visión global del uso del espacio en disco

Es un script versátil y personalizable y permite establecer parámetros para las unidades de sistema y de datos por separado. Puedes especificar el espacio libre mínimo tanto en porcentaje como en bytes e incluso excluir determinadas unidades de la comprobación. Esta flexibilidad es ideal para cualquier profesional de TI o MSP.

El script Disk Space Monitor:

#Requires -Version 2.0

<#
.SYNOPSIS
    Alert on drive(s) that fall below a specified % or size. Distinguishes between System and Data drives.
.DESCRIPTION
    Alert on drive(s) that fall below a specified % or size. Distinguishes between System and Data drives.
    The system drive is the drive(s) that are used to boot the OS.
.EXAMPLE
     -SystemDriveMinFreePercent 10 -SystemDriveMinFreeBytes 10GB -DataDriveMinFreePercent 20 -DataDriveMinFreeBytes 20GB
    This checks all Drives
.EXAMPLE
     -ExcludeDrivesCustomField "C,Z" -SystemDriveMinFreePercentCustomField "SystemDriveMinFreePercent" -SystemDriveMinFreeBytes "SystemDriveMinFreeBytes" -DataDriveMinFreePercent "DataDriveMinFreePercent" -DataDriveMinFreeBytes "DataDriveMinFreeBytes"
    This checks all Drives, except for C: and Z:.
    Use this if you wish to to custom fields to specify the values from roles or globally.
    This will pull the values from custom fields that would have otherwise been used from parameters.
.EXAMPLE
     -ExcludeDrivesByNameCustomField "NoMonitor" -SystemDriveMinFreePercentCustomField "SystemDriveMinFreePercent" -SystemDriveMinFreeBytes "SystemDriveMinFreeBytes" -DataDriveMinFreePercent "DataDriveMinFreePercent" -DataDriveMinFreeBytes "DataDriveMinFreeBytes"
    This checks all Drives, except where a drive name/label contains the text "NoMonitor".
    Use this if you wish to to custom fields to specify the values from roles or globally.
    This will pull the values from custom fields that would have otherwise been used from parameters.
.EXAMPLE
     No Parameters Specified
    This checks all Drives with the defaults:
        SystemDriveMinFreePercent   10%
        SystemDriveMinFreeBytes     10GB
        DataDriveMinFreePercent 20%
        DataDriveMinFreeBytes   20GB
.OUTPUTS
    None
.NOTES
    Minimum OS Architecture Supported: Windows 7, Windows Server 2012 R2
    Release Notes:
    Initial Release
    (c) 2023 NinjaOne
    By using this script, you indicate your acceptance of the following legal terms as well as our Terms of Use at https://www.ninjaone.com/terms-of-use.
    Ownership Rights: NinjaOne owns and will continue to own all right, title, and interest in and to the script (including the copyright). NinjaOne is giving you a limited license to use the script in accordance with these legal terms. 
    Use Limitation: You may only use the script for your legitimate personal or internal business purposes, and you may not share the script with another party. 
    Republication Prohibition: Under no circumstances are you permitted to re-publish the script in any script library or website belonging to or under the control of any other software provider. 
    Warranty Disclaimer: The script is provided “as is” and “as available”, without warranty of any kind. NinjaOne makes no promise or guarantee that the script will be free from defects or that it will meet your specific needs or expectations. 
    Assumption of Risk: Your use of the script is at your own risk. You acknowledge that there are certain inherent risks in using the script, and you understand and assume each of those risks. 
    Waiver and Release: You will not hold NinjaOne responsible for any adverse or unintended consequences resulting from your use of the script, and you waive any legal or equitable rights or remedies you may have against NinjaOne relating to your use of the script. 
    EULA: If you are a NinjaOne customer, your use of the script is subject to the End User License Agreement applicable to you (EULA).
#>

[CmdletBinding()]
param (
    [Parameter()]
    [String]
    $ExcludeDrives,
    $ExcludeDrivesCustomField, # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
    [String]
    $ExcludeDrivesByName,
    $ExcludeDrivesByNameCustomField, # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
    $SystemDriveMinFreePercent = 10,
    $SystemDriveMinFreePercentCustomField, # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
    $SystemDriveMinFreeBytes = 10GB,
    $SystemDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField, # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
    $DataDriveMinFreePercent = 20,
    $DataDriveMinFreePercentCustomField, # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
    $DataDriveMinFreeBytes = 20GB,
    $DataDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
)

begin {
    function Get-Size {
        param (
            [string]$String
        )
        switch -wildcard ($String) {
            '*PB' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^d+]+') * 1PB; break }
            '*TB' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^d+]+') * 1TB; break }
            '*GB' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^d+]+') * 1GB; break }
            '*MB' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^d+]+') * 1MB; break }
            '*KB' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^d+]+') * 1KB; break }
            '*B' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^d+]+') * 1; break }
            '*Bytes' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^d+]+') * 1; break }
            Default { [int64]$($String -replace '[^d+]+') * 1 }
        }
    }
    function Get-FriendlySize {
        param($Bytes)
        # Converts Bytes to the highest matching unit
        $Sizes = 'Bytes,KB,MB,GB,TB,PB,EB,ZB' -split ','
        for ($i = 0; ($Bytes -ge 1kb) -and ($i -lt $Sizes.Count); $i++) { $Bytes /= 1kb }
        $N = 2
        if ($i -eq 0) { $N = 0 }
        if ($Bytes) { "$([System.Math]::Round($Bytes,$N)) $($Sizes[$i])" }else { "0 B" }
    }
    function Invoke-DiskAlert {
        param (
            [PSObject[]]$Drives
        )
        $Drives | ForEach-Object {
            $Type = if ($_.IsSystemDrive) { "SystemDrive" }else { "DataDrive" }
            $Drive = $_
            if ($Drive.totalSpace -and $Drive.freeSpace / $Drive.totalSpace * 100 -lt $Settings."$Type".MinFreePercent) {
                Write-Output "$Type ($($Drive.driveName)) free space is under $($Settings."$Type".MinFreePercent)% at $(Get-FriendlySize -Bytes $Drive.freeSpace)"
            }
            elseif ($Drive.freeSpace -lt $Settings.$Type.MinFreeBytes) {
                Write-Output "$Type ($($Drive.driveName)) free space is under $(Get-FriendlySize -Bytes $Settings."$Type".MinFreeBytes) at $(Get-FriendlySize -Bytes $Drive.freeSpace)"
            }
        }
    }
    function Get-Drive {
        param([string]$DriveName)
        if ($(Get-Command -Name "Get-CimInstance")) {
            Get-CimInstance -Query "select * from Win32_DiskDrive" | Where-Object { $_.Size } | ForEach-Object {
                $d = $_
                $d | ForEach-Object {
                    $Disk = $_
                    $p = Get-CimInstance -Query "ASSOCIATORS OF {Win32_DiskDrive.DeviceID='$($Disk.DeviceID)'}  WHERE AssocClass = Win32_DiskDriveToDiskPartition"
                    $p | ForEach-Object {
                        $Partition = $_
                        Get-CimInstance -Query "ASSOCIATORS OF {Win32_DiskPartition.DeviceID='$($Partition.DeviceID)'} WHERE AssocClass = Win32_LogicalDiskToPartition" | ForEach-Object {
                            $ld = $_
                            [PSCustomObject]@{
                                driveName     = $ld.DeviceId # C:
                                IsSystemDrive = if ($p | Where-Object { $_.BootPartition }) { $true }else { $false }
                                freeSpace     = $ld.FreeSpace # in bytes
                                totalSpace    = $ld.Size # in bytes
                                fileSystem    = $ld.FileSystem # NTFS
                                physicalName  = $d.Name # \.PHYSICALDRIVE2
                                diskName      = $d.Caption # WDC WD5001AALS-xxxxxx
                                diskModel     = $d.Model # WDC WD5001AALS-xxxxxx
                                diskInterface = $d.InterfaceType # IDE
                                mediaStatus   = $d.Status # OK
                                volumeName    = $ld.VolumeName # System
                                volumeSerial  = $ld.VolumeSerialNumber # 12345678
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        else {
            Get-WmiObject -Query "select * from Win32_DiskDrive" | Where-Object { $_.Size } | ForEach-Object {
                $d = $_
                $d | ForEach-Object {
                    $Disk = $_
                    $p = Get-WmiObject -Query "ASSOCIATORS OF {Win32_DiskDrive.DeviceID='$($Disk.DeviceID)'}  WHERE AssocClass = Win32_DiskDriveToDiskPartition"
                    $p | ForEach-Object {
                        $Partition = $_
                        Get-WmiObject -Query "ASSOCIATORS OF {Win32_DiskPartition.DeviceID='$($Partition.DeviceID)'} WHERE AssocClass = Win32_LogicalDiskToPartition" | ForEach-Object {
                            $ld = $_
                            [PSCustomObject]@{
                                driveName     = $ld.DeviceId # C:
                                IsSystemDrive = if ($p | Where-Object { $_.BootPartition }) { $true }else { $false }
                                freeSpace     = $ld.FreeSpace # in bytes
                                totalSpace    = $ld.Size # in bytes
                                fileSystem    = $ld.FileSystem # NTFS
                                physicalName  = $d.Name # \.PHYSICALDRIVE2
                                diskName      = $d.Caption # WDC WD5001AALS-xxxxxx
                                diskModel     = $d.Model # WDC WD5001AALS-xxxxxx
                                diskInterface = $d.InterfaceType # IDE
                                mediaStatus   = $d.Status # OK
                                volumeName    = $ld.VolumeName # System
                                volumeSerial  = $ld.VolumeSerialNumber # 12345678
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}
process {
    # Get values from parameters
    $Settings = [PSCustomObject]@{
        SystemDrive = [PSCustomObject]@{
            MinFreePercent = if ($env:SystemDriveMinFreePercent) { $env:SystemDriveMinFreePercent -replace '%' }else { $SystemDriveMinFreePercent }
            MinFreeBytes   = if ($env:SystemDriveMinFreeBytes) { Get-Size -Size $env:SystemDriveMinFreeBytes }else { $SystemDriveMinFreeBytes }
        }
        DataDrive   = [PSCustomObject]@{
            MinFreePercent = if ($env:DataDriveMinFreePercent) { $env:DataDriveMinFreePercent -replace '%' }else { $DataDriveMinFreePercent }
            MinFreeBytes   = if ($env:DataDriveMinFreeBytes) { Get-Size -Size $env:DataDriveMinFreeBytes }else { $DataDriveMinFreeBytes }
        }
    }
    # Get values from custom field
    if ($SystemDriveMinFreePercentCustomField) {
        $Settings.SystemDrive.MinFreePercent = Ninja-Property-Get -Name $SystemDriveMinFreePercentCustomField
    }
    if ($SystemDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField) {
        $Settings.SystemDrive.MinFreeBytes = Ninja-Property-Get -Name $SystemDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField
    }
    if ($DataDriveMinFreePercentCustomField) {
        $Settings.DataDrive.MinFreePercent = Ninja-Property-Get -Name $DataDriveMinFreePercentCustomField
    }
    if ($DataDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField) {
        $Settings.DataDrive.MinFreeBytes = Ninja-Property-Get -Name $DataDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField
    }
    if ($env:ExcludeDrives) {
        $ExcludeDrives = $env:ExcludeDrives
    }
    if ($ExcludeDrivesCustomField) {
        $ExcludeDrives = Ninja-Property-Get -Name $ExcludeDrivesCustomField
    }
    if ($env:ExcludeDrivesByName) {
        $ExcludeDrivesByName = $env:ExcludeDrivesByName
    }
    if ($env:ExcludeDrivesByNameCustomField) {
        $ExcludeDrivesByNameCustomField = $env:ExcludeDrivesByNameCustomField
    }

    # System.IO.DriveInfo is usable as far back as .NET 2.0 for Windows 7 compatibility.
    # Reference: https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/api/system.io.driveinfo?view=netstandard-2.0

    # Get drives that are in the ready state
    $Drives = Get-Drive

    $Results = if ($Drives) {
        $DrivesFiltered = if ($ExcludeDrivesByName) {
            $Drives | Where-Object { $_.volumeName -notlike "*$ExcludeDrivesByName*" }
        }
        else { $Drive }

        if ($ExcludeDrives) {
            $DriveAlerts = Invoke-DiskAlert -Drives $DrivesFiltered
            $DriveList = if ($ExcludeDrives -like "*,*") {
                $ExcludeDrives -split ',' | Sort-Object -Unique
            }
            else {
                $ExcludeDrives -split '' | Sort-Object -Unique | Select-Object -Skip 1
            }
            $DriveList | ForEach-Object {
                $Drive = $_
                $DriveAlerts | Where-Object { $_ -notlike "*$($Drive):*" }
            }
            
        }
        else {
            Invoke-DiskAlert -Drives $Drives $DrivesFiltered
        }
    }
    else {
        # Should never get here, how was the script executed?!
        "No drives found?!" | Out-String | Write-Host
        exit 2
    }

    if ($Results) {
        $Results | Out-String | Write-Host
        exit 1
    }
    else {
        Write-Host "No drives found with low free space."
        exit 0
    }
}
end {
    $ScriptVariables = @(
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Exclude Drives"
            calculatedName = "excludedrives"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "List if mounted drives to exclude from low drive check. Example: CFZ or C,F,Z"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Exclude Drives Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "excludedrivescustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. List if mounted drives to exclude from low drive check. Example: CFZ or C,F,Z"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Exclude Drives By Name"
            calculatedName = "excludedrivesbyname"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "Exclude drives with with the specified text in it's name/label."
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Exclude Drives By Name Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "excludedrivesbynamecustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. Exclude drives with with the specified text in it's name/label."
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "System Drive Minimum Size in Percent"
            calculatedName = "systemdriveminfreepercent"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = [PSCustomObject]@{
                type  = "TEXT"
                value = "10%"
            }
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "The percentage of free space to alert on when the OS drive is below this percentage. Example: 50 or 50%"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "System Drive Minimum Size in Bytes"
            calculatedName = "systemdriveminfreebytes"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = [PSCustomObject]@{
                type  = "TEXT"
                value = "10GB"
            }
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "The minimum free space to alert on when the OS drive is below this amount. Example: 50GB, 50000MB, or 53687091200"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Data Drive Minimum Size in Percent"
            calculatedName = "datadriveminfreepercent"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = [PSCustomObject]@{
                type  = "TEXT"
                value = "20%"
            }
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "The percentage of free space to alert on when a Data drive is below this percentage. Example: 50 or 50%"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Data Drive Minimum Size in Bytes"
            calculatedName = "datadriveminfreebytes"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = [PSCustomObject]@{
                type  = "TEXT"
                value = "20GB"
            }
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "The minimum free space to alert on when the Data drive is below this amount. Example: 50GB, 50000MB, or 53687091200"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "System Drive Minimum Size in Percent Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "systemdriveminfreepercentcustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. The percentage of free space to alert on when the OS drive is below this percentage. Example: 50 or 50%"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "System Drive Minimum Size in Bytes Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "systemdriveminfreebytescustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. The minimum free space to alert on when the OS drive is below this amount. Example: 50GB, 50000MB, or 53687091200"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Data Drive Minimum Size in Percent Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "datadriveminfreepercentscustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. The percentage of free space to alert on when a Data drive is below this percentage. Example: 50 or 50%"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Data Drive Minimum Size in Bytes Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "datadriveminfreebytescustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. The minimum free space to alert on when the Data drive is below this amount. Example: 50GB, 50000MB, or 53687091200"
        }
    )
    $ScriptName = "Condition Low Disk Space Alert"
}

Accede a más de 700 scripts en el Dojo de NinjaOne aquí

Cómo funciona el script Disk Space Monitor

El script funciona recopilando primero información sobre todas las unidades del sistema. Entonces, filtra las unidades que hayas decidido excluir y comprueba las restantes según los parámetros establecidos. Si alguna unidad queda por debajo del espacio libre mínimo especificado, el script te avisará, permitiéndote tomar medidas antes de que se convierta en un problema.

Una de las características más destacadas de este script es su capacidad para extraer valores de campos personalizados. Esto significa que puedes especificar valores globalmente o a partir de roles, añadiendo otra capa de personalización al script.

Transforma tu gestión de TI con NinjaOne

Si bien es posible monitorear el espacio en disco utilizando únicamente PowerShell desde un equipo local, hay una manera aún mejor de gestionar los recursos de TI de forma remota y a escala: NinjaOne.

NinjaOne es una plataforma de gestión unificada de TI que incorpora pasos de corrección, utilizando sripts si es necesario, en las políticas del dispositivo altamente flexibles, que determinan cuándo se alcanzan los umbrales de alerta y los pasos que deben tomarse a continuación. NinjaOne proporciona acceso a cientos de scripts que pueden resultar útiles, y la posibilidad de crear scripts propios en casi cualquier lenguaje de scripting.

NinjaOne puede ayudarte a supervisar y gestionar todos tus endpoints de TI a gran escala desde un único panel de control. Gracias a las políticas y los scripts, puedes automatizar prácticamente cualquier tarea rutinaria, desde la instalación de parches de software hasta la generación de informes, ahorrando tiempo y gestionando proactivamente las incidencias antes de que se conviertan en problemas.

Próximos pasos

La creación de un equipo de TI próspero y eficaz requiere contar con una solución centralizada que se convierta en tu principal herramienta de prestación de servicios. NinjaOne permite a los equipos de TI supervisar, gestionar, proteger y dar soporte a todos sus dispositivos, estén donde estén, sin necesidad de complejas infraestructuras locales.

Obtén más información sobre NinjaOne Endpoint Management, echa un vistazo a un tour en vivoo tu prueba gratuita de la plataforma NinjaOne.

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