Schijfruimte op afstand beheren en bewaken met PowerShell Script

by Team Ninja
Monitor Disk Space Remotely Powershell Script

Het beheren van schijfruimte is een basisonderdeel van proactieve IT-ondersteuning, dat van cruciaal belang is voor het verminderen van het aantal tickets en het gezond en stabiel houden van het systeem. Een tekort aan schijfruimte kan verantwoordelijk zijn voor vele problemen en klachten van gebruikers: van toepassingsproblemen tot volledige systeemcrashes: Het instellen van alerts voor wanneer schijven onder een bepaalde drempel komen is een uitstekende manier om dit te voorkomen.

In deze blogpost leest u hoe u de schijfcapaciteit kunt beheren en op afstand kunt reageren als er te weinig schijfruimte beschikbaar is, voor al uw gebruikers.

Hoe kan ik de ruimte op de harde schijf op afstand controleren en een waarschuwing versturen als de schijfruimte bijna leeg is?

  1. Identificeer welke schijven u wilt monitoren en welke (indien aanwezig) u wilt uitsluiten.
  2. Bepaal de schijfruimtedrempels die u wilt instellen voor elk type schijf.
  3. Pas het onderstaande script dienovereenkomstig aan.

Dit PowerShell-script is ontworpen om te waarschuwen bij schijven die onder een bepaald percentage of een bepaalde grootte vallen. Het maakt onderscheid tussen systeemschijven (die worden gebruikt om het besturingssysteem op te starten) en gegevensschijven en biedt een uitgebreid overzicht van het gebruik van schijfruimte.

Het script is veelzijdig en aanpasbaar, waardoor parameters voor systeem- en gegevensstations afzonderlijk kunnen worden ingesteld. U kunt de minimale vrije ruimte opgeven in zowel percentage als bytes en zelfs bepaalde schijven uitsluiten van de controle. Deze flexibiliteit is ideaal voor elke IT-professional of MSP.

Het schijfruimte-monitorscript:

#Requires -Version 2.0

<#
.SYNOPSIS
    Alert on drive(s) that fall below a specified % or size. Distinguishes between System and Data drives.
.DESCRIPTION
    Alert on drive(s) that fall below a specified % or size. Distinguishes between System and Data drives.
    The system drive is the drive(s) that are used to boot the OS.
.EXAMPLE
     -SystemDriveMinFreePercent 10 -SystemDriveMinFreeBytes 10GB -DataDriveMinFreePercent 20 -DataDriveMinFreeBytes 20GB
    This checks all Drives
.EXAMPLE
     -ExcludeDrivesCustomField "C,Z" -SystemDriveMinFreePercentCustomField "SystemDriveMinFreePercent" -SystemDriveMinFreeBytes "SystemDriveMinFreeBytes" -DataDriveMinFreePercent "DataDriveMinFreePercent" -DataDriveMinFreeBytes "DataDriveMinFreeBytes"
    This checks all Drives, except for C: and Z:.
    Use this if you wish to to custom fields to specify the values from roles or globally.
    This will pull the values from custom fields that would have otherwise been used from parameters.
.EXAMPLE
     -ExcludeDrivesByNameCustomField "NoMonitor" -SystemDriveMinFreePercentCustomField "SystemDriveMinFreePercent" -SystemDriveMinFreeBytes "SystemDriveMinFreeBytes" -DataDriveMinFreePercent "DataDriveMinFreePercent" -DataDriveMinFreeBytes "DataDriveMinFreeBytes"
    This checks all Drives, except where a drive name/label contains the text "NoMonitor".
    Use this if you wish to to custom fields to specify the values from roles or globally.
    This will pull the values from custom fields that would have otherwise been used from parameters.
.EXAMPLE
     No Parameters Specified
    This checks all Drives with the defaults:
        SystemDriveMinFreePercent   10%
        SystemDriveMinFreeBytes     10GB
        DataDriveMinFreePercent 20%
        DataDriveMinFreeBytes   20GB
.OUTPUTS
    None
.NOTES
    Minimum OS Architecture Supported: Windows 7, Windows Server 2012 R2
    Release Notes:
    Initial Release
    (c) 2023 NinjaOne
    By using this script, you indicate your acceptance of the following legal terms as well as our Terms of Use at https://www.ninjaone.com/terms-of-use.
    Ownership Rights: NinjaOne owns and will continue to own all right, title, and interest in and to the script (including the copyright). NinjaOne is giving you a limited license to use the script in accordance with these legal terms. 
    Use Limitation: You may only use the script for your legitimate personal or internal business purposes, and you may not share the script with another party. 
    Republication Prohibition: Under no circumstances are you permitted to re-publish the script in any script library or website belonging to or under the control of any other software provider. 
    Warranty Disclaimer: The script is provided “as is” and “as available”, without warranty of any kind. NinjaOne makes no promise or guarantee that the script will be free from defects or that it will meet your specific needs or expectations. 
    Assumption of Risk: Your use of the script is at your own risk. You acknowledge that there are certain inherent risks in using the script, and you understand and assume each of those risks. 
    Waiver and Release: You will not hold NinjaOne responsible for any adverse or unintended consequences resulting from your use of the script, and you waive any legal or equitable rights or remedies you may have against NinjaOne relating to your use of the script. 
    EULA: If you are a NinjaOne customer, your use of the script is subject to the End User License Agreement applicable to you (EULA).
#>

[CmdletBinding()]
param (
    [Parameter()]
    [String]
    $ExcludeDrives,
    $ExcludeDrivesCustomField, # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
    [String]
    $ExcludeDrivesByName,
    $ExcludeDrivesByNameCustomField, # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
    $SystemDriveMinFreePercent = 10,
    $SystemDriveMinFreePercentCustomField, # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
    $SystemDriveMinFreeBytes = 10GB,
    $SystemDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField, # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
    $DataDriveMinFreePercent = 20,
    $DataDriveMinFreePercentCustomField, # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
    $DataDriveMinFreeBytes = 20GB,
    $DataDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField # If set, get value from a custom field with this name.
)

begin {
    function Get-Size {
        param (
            [string]$String
        )
        switch -wildcard ($String) {
            '*PB' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^\d+]+') * 1PB; break }
            '*TB' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^\d+]+') * 1TB; break }
            '*GB' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^\d+]+') * 1GB; break }
            '*MB' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^\d+]+') * 1MB; break }
            '*KB' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^\d+]+') * 1KB; break }
            '*B' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^\d+]+') * 1; break }
            '*Bytes' { [int64]$($String -replace '[^\d+]+') * 1; break }
            Default { [int64]$($String -replace '[^\d+]+') * 1 }
        }
    }
    function Get-FriendlySize {
        param($Bytes)
        # Converts Bytes to the highest matching unit
        $Sizes = 'Bytes,KB,MB,GB,TB,PB,EB,ZB' -split ','
        for ($i = 0; ($Bytes -ge 1kb) -and ($i -lt $Sizes.Count); $i++) { $Bytes /= 1kb }
        $N = 2
        if ($i -eq 0) { $N = 0 }
        if ($Bytes) { "$([System.Math]::Round($Bytes,$N)) $($Sizes[$i])" }else { "0 B" }
    }
    function Invoke-DiskAlert {
        param (
            [PSObject[]]$Drives
        )
        $Drives | ForEach-Object {
            $Type = if ($_.IsSystemDrive) { "SystemDrive" }else { "DataDrive" }
            $Drive = $_
            if ($Drive.totalSpace -and $Drive.freeSpace / $Drive.totalSpace * 100 -lt $Settings."$Type".MinFreePercent) {
                Write-Output "$Type ($($Drive.driveName)) free space is under $($Settings."$Type".MinFreePercent)% at $(Get-FriendlySize -Bytes $Drive.freeSpace)"
            }
            elseif ($Drive.freeSpace -lt $Settings.$Type.MinFreeBytes) {
                Write-Output "$Type ($($Drive.driveName)) free space is under $(Get-FriendlySize -Bytes $Settings."$Type".MinFreeBytes) at $(Get-FriendlySize -Bytes $Drive.freeSpace)"
            }
        }
    }
    function Get-Drive {
        param([string]$DriveName)
        if ($(Get-Command -Name "Get-CimInstance")) {
            Get-CimInstance -Query "select * from Win32_DiskDrive" | Where-Object { $_.Size } | ForEach-Object {
                $d = $_
                $d | ForEach-Object {
                    $Disk = $_
                    $p = Get-CimInstance -Query "ASSOCIATORS OF {Win32_DiskDrive.DeviceID='$($Disk.DeviceID)'}  WHERE AssocClass = Win32_DiskDriveToDiskPartition"
                    $p | ForEach-Object {
                        $Partition = $_
                        Get-CimInstance -Query "ASSOCIATORS OF {Win32_DiskPartition.DeviceID='$($Partition.DeviceID)'} WHERE AssocClass = Win32_LogicalDiskToPartition" | ForEach-Object {
                            $ld = $_
                            [PSCustomObject]@{
                                driveName     = $ld.DeviceId # C:
                                IsSystemDrive = if ($p | Where-Object { $_.BootPartition }) { $true }else { $false }
                                freeSpace     = $ld.FreeSpace # in bytes
                                totalSpace    = $ld.Size # in bytes
                                fileSystem    = $ld.FileSystem # NTFS
                                physicalName  = $d.Name # \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE2
                                diskName      = $d.Caption # WDC WD5001AALS-xxxxxx
                                diskModel     = $d.Model # WDC WD5001AALS-xxxxxx
                                diskInterface = $d.InterfaceType # IDE
                                mediaStatus   = $d.Status # OK
                                volumeName    = $ld.VolumeName # System
                                volumeSerial  = $ld.VolumeSerialNumber # 12345678
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        else {
            Get-WmiObject -Query "select * from Win32_DiskDrive" | Where-Object { $_.Size } | ForEach-Object {
                $d = $_
                $d | ForEach-Object {
                    $Disk = $_
                    $p = Get-WmiObject -Query "ASSOCIATORS OF {Win32_DiskDrive.DeviceID='$($Disk.DeviceID)'}  WHERE AssocClass = Win32_DiskDriveToDiskPartition"
                    $p | ForEach-Object {
                        $Partition = $_
                        Get-WmiObject -Query "ASSOCIATORS OF {Win32_DiskPartition.DeviceID='$($Partition.DeviceID)'} WHERE AssocClass = Win32_LogicalDiskToPartition" | ForEach-Object {
                            $ld = $_
                            [PSCustomObject]@{
                                driveName     = $ld.DeviceId # C:
                                IsSystemDrive = if ($p | Where-Object { $_.BootPartition }) { $true }else { $false }
                                freeSpace     = $ld.FreeSpace # in bytes
                                totalSpace    = $ld.Size # in bytes
                                fileSystem    = $ld.FileSystem # NTFS
                                physicalName  = $d.Name # \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE2
                                diskName      = $d.Caption # WDC WD5001AALS-xxxxxx
                                diskModel     = $d.Model # WDC WD5001AALS-xxxxxx
                                diskInterface = $d.InterfaceType # IDE
                                mediaStatus   = $d.Status # OK
                                volumeName    = $ld.VolumeName # System
                                volumeSerial  = $ld.VolumeSerialNumber # 12345678
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}
process {
    # Get values from parameters
    $Settings = [PSCustomObject]@{
        SystemDrive = [PSCustomObject]@{
            MinFreePercent = if ($env:SystemDriveMinFreePercent) { $env:SystemDriveMinFreePercent -replace '%' }else { $SystemDriveMinFreePercent }
            MinFreeBytes   = if ($env:SystemDriveMinFreeBytes) { Get-Size -Size $env:SystemDriveMinFreeBytes }else { $SystemDriveMinFreeBytes }
        }
        DataDrive   = [PSCustomObject]@{
            MinFreePercent = if ($env:DataDriveMinFreePercent) { $env:DataDriveMinFreePercent -replace '%' }else { $DataDriveMinFreePercent }
            MinFreeBytes   = if ($env:DataDriveMinFreeBytes) { Get-Size -Size $env:DataDriveMinFreeBytes }else { $DataDriveMinFreeBytes }
        }
    }
    # Get values from custom field
    if ($SystemDriveMinFreePercentCustomField) {
        $Settings.SystemDrive.MinFreePercent = Ninja-Property-Get -Name $SystemDriveMinFreePercentCustomField
    }
    if ($SystemDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField) {
        $Settings.SystemDrive.MinFreeBytes = Ninja-Property-Get -Name $SystemDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField
    }
    if ($DataDriveMinFreePercentCustomField) {
        $Settings.DataDrive.MinFreePercent = Ninja-Property-Get -Name $DataDriveMinFreePercentCustomField
    }
    if ($DataDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField) {
        $Settings.DataDrive.MinFreeBytes = Ninja-Property-Get -Name $DataDriveMinFreeBytesCustomField
    }
    if ($env:ExcludeDrives) {
        $ExcludeDrives = $env:ExcludeDrives
    }
    if ($ExcludeDrivesCustomField) {
        $ExcludeDrives = Ninja-Property-Get -Name $ExcludeDrivesCustomField
    }
    if ($env:ExcludeDrivesByName) {
        $ExcludeDrivesByName = $env:ExcludeDrivesByName
    }
    if ($env:ExcludeDrivesByNameCustomField) {
        $ExcludeDrivesByNameCustomField = $env:ExcludeDrivesByNameCustomField
    }

    # System.IO.DriveInfo is usable as far back as .NET 2.0 for Windows 7 compatibility.
    # Reference: https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/api/system.io.driveinfo?view=netstandard-2.0

    # Get drives that are in the ready state
    $Drives = Get-Drive

    $Results = if ($Drives) {
        $DrivesFiltered = if ($ExcludeDrivesByName) {
            $Drives | Where-Object { $_.volumeName -notlike "*$ExcludeDrivesByName*" }
        }
        else { $Drive }

        if ($ExcludeDrives) {
            $DriveAlerts = Invoke-DiskAlert -Drives $DrivesFiltered
            $DriveList = if ($ExcludeDrives -like "*,*") {
                $ExcludeDrives -split ',' | Sort-Object -Unique
            }
            else {
                $ExcludeDrives -split '' | Sort-Object -Unique | Select-Object -Skip 1
            }
            $DriveList | ForEach-Object {
                $Drive = $_
                $DriveAlerts | Where-Object { $_ -notlike "*$($Drive):*" }
            }
            
        }
        else {
            Invoke-DiskAlert -Drives $Drives $DrivesFiltered
        }
    }
    else {
        # Should never get here, how was the script executed?!
        "No drives found?!" | Out-String | Write-Host
        exit 2
    }

    if ($Results) {
        $Results | Out-String | Write-Host
        exit 1
    }
    else {
        Write-Host "No drives found with low free space."
        exit 0
    }
}
end {
    $ScriptVariables = @(
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Exclude Drives"
            calculatedName = "excludedrives"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "List if mounted drives to exclude from low drive check. Example: CFZ or C,F,Z"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Exclude Drives Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "excludedrivescustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. List if mounted drives to exclude from low drive check. Example: CFZ or C,F,Z"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Exclude Drives By Name"
            calculatedName = "excludedrivesbyname"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "Exclude drives with with the specified text in it's name/label."
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Exclude Drives By Name Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "excludedrivesbynamecustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. Exclude drives with with the specified text in it's name/label."
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "System Drive Minimum Size in Percent"
            calculatedName = "systemdriveminfreepercent"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = [PSCustomObject]@{
                type  = "TEXT"
                value = "10%"
            }
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "The percentage of free space to alert on when the OS drive is below this percentage. Example: 50 or 50%"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "System Drive Minimum Size in Bytes"
            calculatedName = "systemdriveminfreebytes"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = [PSCustomObject]@{
                type  = "TEXT"
                value = "10GB"
            }
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "The minimum free space to alert on when the OS drive is below this amount. Example: 50GB, 50000MB, or 53687091200"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Data Drive Minimum Size in Percent"
            calculatedName = "datadriveminfreepercent"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = [PSCustomObject]@{
                type  = "TEXT"
                value = "20%"
            }
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "The percentage of free space to alert on when a Data drive is below this percentage. Example: 50 or 50%"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Data Drive Minimum Size in Bytes"
            calculatedName = "datadriveminfreebytes"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = [PSCustomObject]@{
                type  = "TEXT"
                value = "20GB"
            }
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "The minimum free space to alert on when the Data drive is below this amount. Example: 50GB, 50000MB, or 53687091200"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "System Drive Minimum Size in Percent Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "systemdriveminfreepercentcustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. The percentage of free space to alert on when the OS drive is below this percentage. Example: 50 or 50%"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "System Drive Minimum Size in Bytes Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "systemdriveminfreebytescustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. The minimum free space to alert on when the OS drive is below this amount. Example: 50GB, 50000MB, or 53687091200"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Data Drive Minimum Size in Percent Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "datadriveminfreepercentscustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. The percentage of free space to alert on when a Data drive is below this percentage. Example: 50 or 50%"
        }
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            name           = "Data Drive Minimum Size in Bytes Custom Field"
            calculatedName = "datadriveminfreebytescustomfield"
            required       = $false
            defaultValue   = $null
            valueType      = "TEXT"
            valueList      = $null
            description    = "A custom field to get the value from. The minimum free space to alert on when the Data drive is below this amount. Example: 50GB, 50000MB, or 53687091200"
        }
    )
    $ScriptName = "Condition Low Disk Space Alert"
}

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Hoe het schijfruimte-monitorscript werkt

Het script verzamelt eerst informatie over alle schijven op het systeem. Het filtert dan de schijven die de gebruiker wil uitsluiten en controleert de resterende schijven aan de hand van de parameters die zijn ingesteld. Als een schijf onder de opgegeven minimale vrije ruimte komt, zal het script een waarschuwing geven, zodat u maatregelen kunt nemen voordat het problematisch wordt.

Een van de meest opvallende functies van dit script is de mogelijkheid om waarden uit aangepaste velden te halen. Dit betekent dat u waarden globaal of vanuit rollen kunt opgeven, wat een extra aanpassingslaag toevoegt aan het script.

IT-beheer transformeren met NinjaOne

Hoewel het mogelijk is om schijfruimte strikt te bewaken met PowerShell vanaf een lokale computer, is er een nog betere manier om IT-resources op afstand en op schaal te beheren, namelijk: NinjaOne.

NinjaOne is een uniform IT-beheerplatform dat herstelstappen, indien nodig met behulp van scripts, integreert in uiterst flexibel apparaatbeleid dat bepaalt wanneer drempelwaarden voor waarschuwingen worden bereikt en welke vervolgstappen moeten worden genomen. NinjaOne biedt toegang tot honderden nuttige scripts en de mogelijkheid om eigen scripts te maken in bijna elke scripttaal.

NinjaOne kan u helpen al uw IT-eindpunten op schaal te bewaken en te beheren vanuit één enkel dashboard. Met beleidsregels en scripts kunt u vrijwel elke routinetaak automatiseren, van het installeren van softwarepatches tot het genereren van rapporten, waardoor u tijd bespaart en problemen proactief kunt beheren voordat het problemen worden.

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